Finite element structural analysis_ a new tool for bicycle frame design, by leisha a. peterson and kelly j. londry

Tool for Bicycle Frame Design The Strain Energy Design Method by Leisha A. How to lose weight with pcos fast Peterson and Kelly J. Exercise induced urticaria natural treatment Londry

The structural design tool called finite-elements analysis is

useful, even essential, for achieving optimum results with the

new composite materials (carbon, Kevlar). Weight loss 2015 Of course, the method

titanium). Military diet success Leisha Peterson and Kelly Londry of Pegasus Research,

whose finite-elements analysis played a part in developing the


4 week diet plan to lose weight The design and manufacture of bicycle frames has largely

been an art, performed by skilled craftsmen; their efforts have

most apparent when new materials enter the picture, and when new

applications and demands are placed on the structure. Weight loss humor Now that

magnesium, titanium, and fiber composites, a need exists to help

the designer exploit the desirable properties of these materials.

Trial and error is costly and slow, and intuition does not always

analysis (FEA) method. Losing weight before pregnancy The essence of FEA is to break a large

stress analysis problem into many smaller ones, which are then

collectively solved by computer. Weight loss youtube (A thorough treatment of FEA

applications in the auto industry is given in Modern Automotive

Structural Analysis, edited by M.M. Calories required to lose weight calculator Kamal and J.A. Exercises to lose weight Wolf, Jr., New

finite-element analysis, by comparing it against the Trek 770

steel frame and the Vitus 979 aluminum frame (manufactured by

bridges, and tall buildings built today. How to lose belly fat and love handles The bike industry is

just beginning to realize the potential value of FEA for improved

standard office microcomputers (IBM-PC variety) can handle the

calculations for significantly large, complex models, more and

more manufacturers and designers will start to use the method.

fine-tune the geometry of a design that is still on the drawing

board, before working models are built and tested. Paleo egg salad FEA is also

used to debug an existing prototype. How to lose weight with pcos and thyroid The first approach is more

cost-effective and can open the door to more creative solutions

offers a good example of how FEA works in practice. Military diet for a week Here, the

analysis was used to modify the design after Trek had built an

aluminum) and the joining method (adhesive bonding) were both

relatively new to the bicycle industry, and Trek realized that

necessary refinements would have been unacceptably slow and/or

expensive if the traditional trial-and-error paths were followed

improve the early prototype, using finite element analysis, with

the goal of refining a frame design which performed at least as

rather than on the shop floor, saving valuable development time. Exercise calories burned app Goals of the Study

use the FEA tool to explore a wide range of trade-offs in frame

design, and then to narrow the focus to a few options which would

be most feasible for Trek to implement. A diet to lose belly fat This is the usual FEA

approach in automotive and aircraft design work. Paleo diet grains A byproduct of

developments; Trek is now in a position to explore more radical

designs and construction methods using FEA, with good assurance

that reliable results will be obtained. I need to lose weight fast for my wedding The objectives of each

model for the new frame design, as well as for two popular high

performance frames: a Trek 770 (Reynolds 531C steel) and a Vitus

equal size (60 cm). Paleo diet success stories The Trek 770 and the Bador frames are the

critical in the design, in terms of undesirable responses (high

stresses, high deflections, etc.). Best diet to lose weight Establish which loads may be

stiffness, and weight by studying (graphing, plotting, etc.) the

output data from the previous steps. How do u lose weight fast Seek intuitive insights from

reasonable extent. Lose belly fat in 1 month Following is a more detailed account of how

strength and elongation-at-break) are primarily used only after

FEA, for evaluating the significance of internal stresses and

application on the frame. Weight loss breakfast Loading information is derived from

experiment, analytical deduction, and government standards. Paleo diet vs atkins This

information is then used to specify forces and moments acting at

bracket bearing, head tube, seat post, and brake bridges. Exercise gyms near me (See

effort was made to define a realistic and self-consistent set of

load conditions. Weight loss success stories 100 pounds before and after We will describe the load cases at some length

since, in the bicycling industry at present, there is no accepted

applying maximum effort to accelerate from a standing stop. Exercise quotes pinterest The

assumed negligible. Exercise with baby carrier The bike is in vertical equilibrium with the

front wheel pointed straight. Weight loss inspiration Using published measurements of

pedal loads and acceleration, the equations of static and dynamic

equilibrium are solved to find chain, pedal, and handlebar loads.

We find that loads generated in this case are very similar to

manufacturer’s frame design must pass certain physical tests to

Affairs (BNA) and the Consumer Product Safety Commission. How to lose weight jogging The

pounds) is applied to the front dropouts horizontally, with the

effect might be similar to a low speed, head-on collision into a

significantly limits the steering angle over which the wheel can

are represented by multiplying the rider’s weight by a certain

pedaling forces. Exercise is medicine prescription pad As a matter of interest, an object dropped from

an infinitesimal height onto a rigid surface would exert a two-G

the front tire is skidding and thus front pitchover is imminent.

Therefore, all weight is concentrated on the front wheel. Exercise induced anaphylaxis wiki Inertia

loads caused by deceleration are included in the analysis. Paleozoic era animals It is

assumed that the rider applies no pedal loads during braking, and

that all horizontal forces imparted by the rider are countered at

that the rear tire is skidding. Exercise equipment stores sacramento Forces and moments imparted to

the seatstays by friction reactions at the brake pads are taken

into account. Best diet for abs building All other assumptions are similar to those of the

front wheel braking case. Paleo chili lime chicken There is some conjecture involved in

these braking cases, because empirical measured data is lacking

investigation. 3 day military diet before and after pictures A 160 pound cyclist, seated on a 24-pound bicycle,

is generating .54 horsepower (400 watts) at a cadence of 80 rpm.

The front sprocket has 53T, the rear has 17T. Vitamin d diet plan It is assumed that

forces due to leg dynamics may be neglected. Healthy diet and exercise plan Aerodynamic forces

are also ignored since, at 25 mph, these forces are less than 10

pounds. Lose weight fast in 2 weeks Pedal forces and moments about the three principal axes

partial separation of the rider’s mass and damping effect from

requires the solution of seven simultaneous equations, plus an

additional assumption that all horizontal pedal loads (parallel

with the ground) are countered at the saddle. Exercise calorie calculator walking This assumption is

arguable (because the exact distribution of loads depends on the

rider’s individual style), but it is not critical. Exercise challenges at work In this study,

at the maximum loading angle, approximately parallel with the

recently-issued patent [later overturned — John Allen], two tests are defined as indicators of

infringement: a lateral bending test and a bottom-bracket torsion

test. Paleo diet restrictions These tests may have evaluation merit in their own right,

but manufacturers also want to avoid legal problems. Exercise physiologist salary texas Thus, it may

be important to know whether a proposed design violates patent

claims before investing in its full development. Weight loss meditation app Using FEA, these

optimizing frame performance begins. Losing weight during menopause The challenge is to minimize

weight without compromising frame stiffness (subject to strength

thicknesses in a trial-and-error fashion. Weight loss clinic houston A problem with this

approach is that changing any one tube changes the stresses and

deflections throughout the entire frame. Lose belly fat naturally home remedies (The reason is that the

changed in trying to progress toward the optimum. 2 month weight loss results To deal with

this problem, we developed the following technique. Exercise calendar for beginners The Energy Method of Frame Optimization

another powerful evaluation method which reveals this elusive

information. Paleo diet facts It is based on the true intent of a stiff frame –

efficient energy transfer from the cyclist to the rear wheel.

transfer energy efficiently from the cyclist to the rear wheel.

energy that goes into flexing (straining) the frame. Cutting calories to lose weight calculator Some of this

strain energy might be recoverable (i.e., released in such a way

measurements that show how much is recovered. Percentage of weight loss Thus, we assume

that the best policy is to minimize strain energy absorption in

application, work is done on the frame, resulting in the frame’s

compressed by an axial force. Paleo zucchini fritters no flour The stored energy is then equal to

related through stiffness (f = kx, from equations above), the

strain energy equation may be re-written to show the influence of

equal forces, the stiffer spring will store less energy. Diet plan for abs vegetarian This

same principle also applies in a complex structure like a bicycle

energy stored in each element by using the matrix analogues of

the energy equations immediately above. Exercise for arthritis We have found that this

distribution of energy within the frame is a useful indicator of

concept of minimizing a frame’s total energy storage is a helpful

load-deflection tests, such as the Klein patent test, which serve

well for an overall evaluation of existing frames, but do not

provide sufficient detailed data to show which frame components

may need to be changed to improve frame performance. Weight loss reddit Directional Stiffness

specified by a single number in the same way that, for example,

(non-directional), and therefore may be expressed by a single,

absolute number. Low carb diet tired This provides a convenient figure-of-merit by

which alternative frame designs may be compared. Weight loss yoga Further, the

amount of strain energy absorbed by each element may be expressed

these points. Exercise workouts for stomach Figure 8 shows the strain energy pattern within

each tube of the Trek 770, for four loading cases. Exercise moves for legs Figure 8: Strain Energy

storage. Healthy diet definition The energy stored here (79.5 in-lb) represents about 4.0

percentage, but in racing situations, even a slight reduction in

load cases. Weight loss images cartoons The cruising condition has much lower energy losses

than the hill-climb case: 3.26 in-lb versus 79.5 in-lb. Healthy diet guidelines In the 3G

vertical impact case, the strain energy is a mere 1.42 in-lbs. Exercise science fsu We

draw the conclusion that, for the sake of rider comfort, energy

losses in the vertical direction could be increased with little

negative effect on climbing performance. Exercise moves to lose weight In other words, the new

example, the seatstays absorb most of the vertical impact loads,

main tubes. Paleo diet what to eat For the cruising condition, energy losses are well

balanced among them. 2 week weight loss meal plan But the down tube consumes almost 50% of the

attributed to the out-of-saddle riding position that we assumed

for this case. Exercise options Thus, these numbers support the idea of designing

different frames to suit different riders’ styles (for example,

those who sit versus those who stand for hill climbing, or those

three frame designs. Paleo 360 rezepte In Figure 9, the strain energy absorbed by

10, which lists the percentage of strain energy accounted for by

each of the four modes of deformation (axial loading, bending out

of the plane of the frame, in-plane bending, and torsion). Healthy diet to lose weight for teenage girl Figure 10: Strain

deformation. Lose belly fat overnight drink Start-up (hill-climbing) load case. Weight loss 30 days A. Weight loss diet for thyroid patients TREK 2000

energy absorber. How to lose weight without pills It stores between 38% and 49% of the total. Best yogurt for diet Of

this, between 58% and 66% is due to torsion. Exercise science jobs nj The remainder is due

to out-of-plane bending. Exercise your right to vote In-plane bending and axial loading are

energy absorber. To lose belly fat It stores between 19% and 25% percent of the

total. Weight loss rewards app Most of this (between 79% and 84%) is due to out-of-plane

out-of-plane bending. Lose weight fast workout plan The remainder is due to torsion. Weight loss help In-plane

between 12% and 21%. Youtube exercise channels Note that these bending trends oppose the

traditional use of elliptical chainstays with the major axis in

the vertical direction. Paleo 30 day meal plan Torsion accounts for 28% to 62% of the

energy storage. Weight loss calendar 2016 The apparent wide range of percentages here stems

from the different loads encountered on the left and right sides.

inefficiency of aerodynamic tubing becomes apparent. Weight loss workout plans free (Aero tubing

out-of-plane bending losses in the seat tube, it would make sense

structurally to redesign this tube. Tips for lose belly fat One possibility is to use an

out-of-plane elliptical cross-section, but this poses aerodynamic

questions. I want to lose weight fast yahoo Another possibility is for manufacturers to produce

round-OD tubes with internal reinforcing ribs running the length

of the tube, something like the butted sections of Columbus SLX

of weight versus strain energy in Figure 11 (data is from Figure

9). Low carb diet before and after The Trek 2000 is clearly the stiffest frame of the three,

since it is lowest in strain energy absorption. Weight loss 4 2 day cleanse In addition, it

is lighter than the Trek 770 and almost as light as the Bador.

surprises to the experienced frame designer. Healthy diet tips What, then, is the

value of the FEA method? Speed, for one thing. Diet foods to lose weight Physical testing

materials. Paleoveneti In particular, frame design with fiber composites,

with their highly directional properties, should be much simpler

computer-aided engineering services for the bicycle industry.

They also consult on CAD applications for automobile and aircraft

design. Exercise science jobs near me They both hold M.S. Paleo diet grocery list on a budget Mechanical Engineering degrees from

Univ. Healthy diet to gain weight of Michigan at Ann Arbor. 5 2 diet plan They have built a number of human-powered vehicles for competition in the IHPI/A trials, including

its class in 1984. Paleo fudge Currently, they are developing BikeCAD, an

Engineering Director, for their cooperation in the preparation of

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